A mild high blood pressure is when the highest number is 140 to 159 or the bottom number reads 90 to 99, and moderate to severe high blood pressure or hypertension is a systolic pressure of 160 or higher or a diastolic pressure of 100 or more. When the cause of hypertension is unknown, it is called primary or essential hypertension. If the result of another medical problem or medication is called secondary high blood pressure.
When measuring blood pressure, it is important to use the correct arm position. Note that the reading may not be valid if the arm is not in the middle of the sternum, horizontal level in the body, as it may be an overestimation or underestimation of the pressures of approximately 10 mm Hg. The correct measurement of blood pressure is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, particularly in the elderly, as it can significantly increase cardiac and renal disease and cerebrovascular accidents have especially.
Symptoms, Incidence and Risk Factors of Hypertension
Hypertension is underdiagnosed because it damages the body with few or no symptoms. For the most part, you. Might not know if you have high blood pressure and for that reason, it is often called the "silent murderer". According to the American Heart Association, about 73.6 million people in the United States aged 20 years or older, that is one in three adults has high blood pressure.
Risk factors for hypertension are many and varied, age, ethnicity, gender, family history, smoking, activity level, diet, medications, kidney problems and many other medical problems. In turn, hypertension is a risk factor for strokes and heart attacks. In 2006, stroke accounted for about 1 of every 18 deaths in the United States.
According to the American Heart Association, high blood pressure is the leading cause of stroke, a condition that develops when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. By lowering blood pressure, long-chain fatty acids omega-3 can reduce the risk of ischemic stroke, the most common type, which occurs when there is an interruption in blood flow to the brain.
Omega 3 Long Chain tend to decrease the pressure. Omega-3 Foods
More and more evidence suggests that omega-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils, especially fatty fish like mackerel, sardines, wild salmon, trout and fresh tuna, play a protective role in heart disease through a variety of actions, including effects on blood pressure. There is limited information on the role of food in the long-term change in blood pressure. However, studies generally support the concept that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in meat (except fish) can reduce the likelihood of developing high blood pressure. For example, long-term fish consumption is associated with improved systolic blood pressure. Another population that typically consume 300-600 g of fish per day had a significantly lower blood pressure than a population with a vegetarian diet.
The beneficial effect of fish on blood pressure often has been attributed to increased intake of omega-3 long chain docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Some studies indicate that the effect of reducing the blood pressure of omega-3 is limited to people with hypertension and reductions occur at relatively high doses. One study showed that a daily consumption of salmon by healthy people significantly lowers blood pressure by 4%. In individuals with heart disease, intake of lean fish at least four times a week also reduced blood pressure levels. Even a small reduction in the count of blood pressure is important, and foods rich in omega-3 as part of a healthy diet can contribute to the prevention and control of blood pressure levels.
Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids, including fatty acids such as linoleic, alpha-linolenic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during childhood are associated with reduced blood pressure during it. Blood pressure is known to be tracked from childhood to adulthood, and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure of a population can reduce hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease significantly.
Supplements of omega-3 Studies have shown significant benefits of omega-3 in reducing blood pressure in people with hypertension. Blood pressure was reduced in men with normal blood lipids and mild hypertension, after consumption of 3.4 g of omega-3 daily for two months. Increased consumption of omega-3s from fish oil supplements or fish liver was associated with blood pressure and heart rate significantly lower. Similarly, diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in overweight and obese individuals who consumed salmon three times a week or 1-3 g daily of omega-3s from fish oil capsules for 8 weeks.
The meta-analysis, which are consistent statistical analysis of the data from several independents studies have examined the relationship of randomized clinical trials between consumption of omega-3s and blood pressure. A meta-analysis concluded that the evidence suggests an antihypertensive effect in the high consumption of fish oil, especially in older populations and in populations with hypertension. In participants without hypertension, a small but not significant in systolic and diastolic pressure reduction was observed. This meta-analysis of 36 trials found that an average dose of 4 g per day of fish oil reduced systolic blood pressure by 2.1 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure and 1.6 mm Hg. However, even a low dose of about 1 g of DHA for 3 months significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure in middle-aged men and women. Overall, the evidence indicates that the effect of omega-3s in lowering blood pressure benefit individuals with high blood pressure to greater than those with normal blood pressure level.
Small reductions in blood pressure occur very important risk reductions. The decrease in systolic blood pressure by 3 mm Hg decrease stroke mortality by 8%, mortality from cardiovascular disease in 5%, and all-cause mortality by 3%, suggesting that the intervention perform small changes could affect the large differences in morbidity and mortality.
How to lower blood pressure omega-3s?
A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the antihypertensive effects of omega-3, including those related to vascular, cardiac and autonomic. The thickening of the arterial wall, which is characteristic of hypertension, reduced with treatment with DHA in an animal model of hypertension. The reducing effect of omega-3 in blood pressure in the elderly, were enhanced by sodium restriction and the simultaneous use of antihypertensive drugs. In male patients with mild essential hypertension, the reducing effect of fish liver oil on blood pressure was comparable to that of a beta-blocker, a drug that regulates the activity of the heart and is commonly used to treat hypertension. The combination of beta-blockers and fish oil was more effective than when alone.
Other possible ways that DHA can reduce blood pressure include the modification of the absorption of sodium by the kidney, changes in the kidney of arachidonic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-6 long chain) metabolism and transport of calcium, and activation of potassium channels by arachidonic acid metabolites that dilate blood vessels. EPA and DHA have different effects on blood circulation.
DHA is possibly most favorable in reducing blood pressure and heart rate and improve vascular function. One study showed that DHA, but not EPA, reduced ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in men with moderately elevated blood lipids. Ambulatory blood pressure is measured by many readings over a period of 24 hours or more. The EPA, in particular, helps the body produce antibodies anti-inflammatory hormone-like lipids and blood thinners. Some scientists suggest that a form of EPA may help reduce blood pressure through the effect of blood thinning. By allowing blood to pump more efficiently throughout the body, there is less pressure on the heart.
Recommendations for intake of omega-3 fatty acids
Based on the abundant evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of omega-3s on health and disease prevention, many health agencies have made recommendations for the intake of fish or omega-3 supplements. The typical Western diet provides only the equivalent of fish one day for every 10 days. This amount is far less than that recommended by the National Institute of Health USA, equivalent to 650 mg / day of DHA and EPA in the diet, or the recommendation of the American Heart Association 500 mg / day for healthy people 1000 mg / day for people with heart disease. In 2008, the Technical Committee on Dietary Lipids of the International Institute of Life Sciences of North America concluded that there is now sufficient evidence to justify the establishment of a recommended dietary intake of DHA + EPA reference which is between 300 and 500 mg / day, at least. Because virtually none of the omega-3 from plants or alpha-linolenic acid is converted to omega-3s, levels of tissue protection through DHA and EPA can only be achieved by consuming these omega-3 which are formed in fish.
Consumption of supplements of fish liver oil DHA and EPA is also an effective way to increase your intake of omega-3 for those who do not eat fish.
Consumer Recommendations mentioned are the minimum required and are specifically the DHA and EPA fatty acids, commonly found in supplements such as fish liver oil. This usually varies the oil concentration of a third to a quarter depending on the time of capture. Therefore the suggested intake according to experience for years in our country is 5 mL for daily maintenance and 10 to 15 ml in case of pathology.